Friday, November 28, 2008


More than 78 million cases of illness caused by microbiological infection of foods are reported per year from all over the world and the economic damage to deal with them is estimated at about US $ 10 billion besides loss of several valuable lives which could have been saved if timely detection measures were available. Many strains of Salmonella, Clostridium, Bacillus, E.coli and Listeria are the major culprits responsible for these havoc. The manifested symptoms can be diarrhea of varying severity, GI discomforts, vomiting, stomach flu, induced paralysis, etc, some time even leading to fatality. One of the practical constraints is the time lag between occurrence of the symptoms after food consumption and confirmation of food poisoning as the universally accepted diagnostic methods are time consuming, requiring at least 48 hours time in the Laboratory. Of course there are DNA based and anti-body based methods which are relatively quick but they can only identify specific bacteria but cannot indicate the presence of toxicity or anticipate the potential for causing serious harm to the consumers.

The encouraging work from a group of microbiologists from USA in identifying certain chromatophore or pigment bearing cells called erythrophores as potential detectors of microbial toxins gives hope that many lives can be saved by early confirmation of infections in suspected foods and prompt treatment. Siamese fighting fish are known to carry these cells which can be seen through their transparent body. In response to stimulation by the presence of toxic chemicals in the suspected foods, the pigmented cells move in a characteristic pattern specific to different chemical moieties. These patterns can be seen under low power microscopes and can even be quantified numerically to describe the intensity of the situation. If the claims are true the results can be made available in minutes, saving considerable time for initiating preventive measures.

As the method is still under development, it could take time to evolve affordable and reliable portable kits that can be used under field conditions. Such kits as and when they are ready can serve admirably the interests processors, distributors, retailers and even consumers. It is a laudable effort by the scientists with global relevance and WHO must pitch in to take it forward to its logical conclusion by organized manufacture of the proven kits for supply to highly vulnerable countries in Asia, Africa and South America.


Monday, November 24, 2008


Ethyl Alcohol has often been touted as the bio-fuel that can challenge the fossil fuels in future. This assumption has driven many countries like Brazil, USA, and others including India to go for use of blends of petrol and ethanol in varying proportions hoping to reduce their dependence on imported crude oil progressively. It is amazing how in Brazil, more than 50% of the automobiles are run on 100% ethanol while rest use flex fuels containing up to 25% ethanol blended with petrol. While in USA corn is the source from which alcohol is produced by saccharification and yeast fermentation, in Brazil sugarcane provides the carbon source for alcohol fermentation. There are many issues which confront the world when considering large scale switch over to ethanol and there does not appear to be any consensus on them with divergent views being being expressed by the scientific as well as the policy makers.

Probably one of the critical issues is the desirability of diverting food materials like corn, sugarcane and others for non-food uses with its attendant consequences. A wide variety of carbon sources can be used with appropriate technology to derive alcohol. These include besides corn and sugarcane other feed-stocks like bagasse, sugar beet, sorghum, switch grass, barley, hemp, kenaf,potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruits, molasses, many food grains, straw, cotton etc. Recent spurt in food grain prices, in sympathy with crude oil prices has been attributed to greater demand for alcohol for blelding with gasoline resulting in 15-20% more production in USA alone diverting increased corn into this stream. Many oppose use of food materials like corn for alcohol production because it is blamed for harming the environment, prompting food riots in many parts of the world and wasting public money on thoughtless subsidies which otherwise could have been better utilized to evolve truly renewable energy systems through research and development. Massive subsidies at the crop level first to corn growing companies and then to petrol companies for blending alcohol later only can sustain alcohol as a bio-fuel. If these subsidies are stopped ethanol as a bio-fuel may not be a viable proposition in many countries.

Use of non-food resources like cellulosic wastes such as grasses, bagasse, straws etc is another approach being considered for ethanol production though commercialization of the technology may take some time. The advent of ambient condition processing technology may yet make the technology energy efficient compared to the conventional elevated temperature saccharification-fermentation technology. Some experts feel that bio-fuels from agriculture wastes are more energy efficient and have a smaller impact on environment pollution and food prices. The allegation that 10% addition of alcohol reduces mileage and consequently such an approach will call for import of 11% more crude oil needs to be looked into. While hydrated alcohol can run a car engine designed for 100% alcohol fuel, flex fuels call for using only anhydrous alcohol with less than 1% water in cars that run on such blends with possibly increased VOC emissions. It is irrefutable that ethanol consumption will be 51% more than gasoline to get the same mileage since energy per unit is 34% lower in ethanol.

Some proponents feel that instead of bio-conversion, a more economic and environment friendly approach will be direct burning which yields more net energy than the bio route. Even with corn, pyrolysis of whole plant is considered more desirable than using only the kernel. Corn growing and processing into ethanol is alleged to be consuming 29% more energy than what it can yield as a a bio-fuel while others require up to 57% more fossil fuels with negative net energy yield. It is difficult to find where the truth lies in this on going debate regarding bio-fuels and their role as effective alternative to fossil fuels.

Bio-diesel mostly based on soybean is another area beset with problems of clarity. If edible oils like Palm oil, Soybean oil and others are diverted for non-food uses, it can have disastrous consequences on the availability and prices of these scarce food source, especially in the third world countries. Besides the large quantity of glycerol generated as a by-product will have to find economic use. Recent reports regarding the development of a technology to convert glycerol to ethanol using anaerobic fermentation with a special strain of E.coli may provide a solution to this problem if and when it is commercialized. Current production of about 250 million gallons of bio-diesel has generated 25 gallons of glycerol and the figure is likely to go up to 100 million gallons when the bio-diesel production is slated to cross the one billion gallon mark soon. Bio-diesel proponents claim that it reduces pollution by 41% as compared to fossil fuels.

The dilemma facing the world is how the emerging fossil fuel crisis can be averted by finding alternate environmentally viable options without losing further time. While food crops must be spared from their use as a renewable energy source through the alcohol route, a world-wide action program needs to be launched to increase the efficiency of many of the currently known alternatives like solar, wind, wave, geothermal and other energy systems and look out for other new economically and environmentally viable technologies for providing clean energy to meet the aspirations of future generations.


Tuesday, November 18, 2008


Pathogenic microorganisms causing various diseases by infecting foods are of major concern to the food industry and food handlers in general. While pathogens require a certain minimum moisture in the medium where they can thrive, insects and pests bring about huge losses in dry commodities like cereals, pulses, plantation crops and nuts and seeds. Pasteurization techniques widely used in fluid foods take care of pathogenic infarctions and consequent risk to human lives and UHT and Aseptic processes have proven to be highly dependable to ensure freedom from pathogenic out breaks during the last 2-3 decades. High pressure sterilization, irradiation, ultra filtration all achieve microbial destruction to varying extent. The production environment and practices prevalent in a country determine the microbial quality of the produce and commodities raised there and food poisoning from endotoxic and exotoxic microbes is reported to be widespread though no reliable statistics are available to confirm or deny such claims. Since microbes are not visible to the naked eyes, natural and accidental contamination and consequent mild manifestations go unnoticed and unreported. Imagine the size of a pin head where 2.5 lakh cells of the lethal strain of E.Coli can be packed and only 10-50 cells can be fatal to children and old age population. Other important deadly microbes that infect many foods include Salmonella, Clostridium parfringens, Bacillus cereus, C. bottulinum and Listeria.

Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world and they destroy foods both in the field and at post harvest stages. Some estimates put the loss of food grains, most susceptible to infestation at 40% of world production valued at billions of dollars. There are innumerable species of insects in this planet numbering 6-10 million, on a conservative estimate though no one knows their exact number. Imagine their population in this world that will be in trillions! About 1% of these only are considered to have pest value to the human beings, competing for food and consequent food losses.

Rural folks rarely understand the severity of the problem as infestation does not reduce the volume of the grains but the weight loss results due to insects carving out nutrients from the grain without showing any signs outwardly. Besides the insects leave their body parts after their life cycle and the excreta during their proliferation. High uric acid content is often associated with severe infestation. Secondary microbial infection also takes place further deteriorating the safety of the affected grains. Use of synthetic chemical insecticides is inevitable both in the field during plant growth and during storage if food grains are to be saved or spoilage reduced to manageable limits. Residual pesticides, in turn, pose dangers to the consumers which gave rise to the birth of the organic food industry. Biopesticides are also receiving attention for use in place of toxic pesticides currently being used in large quantities.

Heating any food at 130C for 30 minutes, storing under 0C temperature for 4 days, use of gamma radiation, many traditional practices like mixing with clay, use of neem leaves and underground storage, modern modified atmospheric storage etc are known to counteract infestation problems to varying extent depending on the food material and the storage environment. Entolators are part of flour mills to eradicate infestation in wheat and wheat products.

Infrared radiation (15-1000 micrometer wave length) is the most recent tool recommended for disinfection and dis-infestation. It can kill pathogens like Salmonella in almonds and some of the dry foods and is found to be effective in killing insects, their eggs and larvae in many crops such as rice. Food industry is taking a leaf out of the experience of auto industry which had to switch over to water based paints for environment safety and drying the paints using infrared efficiently. Infrared wave length has an affinity for water. Insects, eggs and larvae and microorganisms have higher moisture content than the grains or flours and the infrared radiant energy targets the water in these vectors. The rapidly absorbed radiant energy from infrared waves heats up the live contaminants killing them in seconds. Food industry already uses infrared radiation for drying and roasting food materials and same facilities can be used for disinfection and disinfestation also in many dry ingredients.


Monday, November 17, 2008


" FRUITS & VEGETABLES TECHNOLOGY-Process & Product Development", a masterly compilation, published recently by Dr A M Nanjundaswamy, a reputed Food Technologist of CFTRI lineage is an attempt to bring out latest information on all aspects concerning processing of horticultural produce with emphasis on Indian conditions. Any reference source of information must meet two requirements if to be useful, the extent of coverage and the authenticity. Of course the lucidity of expression and clarity in illustration will make such publications user friendly. The new publication, painstakingly compiled by one of the pioneering scientists of modern days on fruit and vegetables is timely and meets with the above criteria.

The 620 page compendium covers every conceivable aspect relating to preservation, processing and development of various products based on these highly perishable commodities. The coverage includes principles involved in food preservation by conventional as well as modern technologies besides the practical aspects of thermal processing, canning, juices and beverages, juice concentrates, dehydration, freezing, membrane processing, intermediate moisture foods, thermal processing, pickles, preserves, candies and crystallized fruits, osmotic concentration, fruit powders, aseptic packing, by-product beneficiation, food additives, strained baby foods and importance of untapped indigenous fruits.

The publication will serve as a ready reckoner to students aspiring to become professionals in the area of fruit and vegetable processing for a number of years to come. With training infrastructure in India fast expanding the student community will be immensely benefited by the availability of a relatively low cost but authentic text book on the subject. For industry also, especially micro and small enterprise sectors, this compendium can be a standard reference source of information. The author can be contacted at 11 B Gokulam Park Road, 3rd Cross, V V Mohalla, Mysore 570002, Tel-0821 2513 334 for further details.


Sunday, November 16, 2008


Eating fish is considered a most healthy practice as they are the richest sources of EFA (Omega-3 acids), vital for sustaining human life, which are not synthesized by the body. There are hundreds of types of fish harvested from fresh water as well as the marine bodies while large quantities are reared under captivity through aqua culture technology. There are over 27000 species of fish known to mankind and 14-16% of animal proteins consumed world-wide comes from fish. Some of the most commonly consumed fish include Anchovy, Carp, Cat Fish, Dog Fish, Bass, Cod, Eel, Haddock, Herring, Mackerel, Marlin, Pom-fret, Pollock, Salmon, Sardine, Snapper, Tilapia, Trout and Tuna. World wide commercial fish catch is estimated at 95 million ton (mt) while fish farming yields another 50 mt annually. Aquaculture sector provides another 15 mt.

Increasing concern is being raised about the sustainability of fishing as a perennial source of food in view of over exploitation using modern trawlers. During the last 50 years of commercial fishing the effective population of 50 major species of fish has been reduced to 10% while many are on the brink of extinction. To day long line fishing is able to catch only one fish per 100 hooks as against 10 fish per 100 hooks 15 years ago reflecting the rapid decline in the fish population. According to fishery experts if the level of fishing is not reduced to 50% of what is being done currently, the day is not far off when commercial fishing will have to come to a grinding halt.

Nutrition experts recommend 300-600g of fish consumption per week for maintaining good health and at the rate fish is vanishing in the open water bodies due to over exploitation, 100% of the supply will have to come from fish farms and aqua culture, a tall order considering the constraints and limitations inherent in captive production. Even assuming that only 50% of world population consumes fish, the annual requirement to meet the needs @ 25 kg per capita works out to about more than 250 mt taking into consideration spoilage and non food uses and whether such production is sustainable is a big question mark. This assumes critical importance in view of the dwindling supply from the open seas and persistent call from the fishery experts to cut down on the catch by half for building up the resources to sustainable levels. Compounding this problem is the hypoxia condition generated in the oceans due to indiscriminate pollution and consequent depletion of oxygen when there is a shift in fish gender, males predominating the newly hatched population which further depletes production.

Marine Conservation Society (MNC) has sent advisories to the consumers to avoid eating a dozen species including Anchovies which face imminent extinction if conservation measures are not adopted immediately. MNC is doing a yeomen service in the field of fish conservation and has categorized edible fish species into five groups with rankings from 1 to 5 denoting the vulnerability of each variety. A rank of 5 considered worst from the sustainability angle is a danger signal and there are 69 species already with this ranking which include Monk fish from Spain, North Sea Cod, Dog Fish, Atlantic Salmon, Common Skate and Sword Fish. MNC does not label entire species unacceptable to eat but strives to explain whether a certain type of fish is sustainable or not based on how it was caught. Probably consumers may play a role in conservation if the information regarding this is available to them. How far it is practical to force the processors to declare the MNC rankings on the label of the product, remains to be seen. It is presumed that consumer awareness and resistance to purchase of such endangered species may eventually act as a deterrent to over exploitation and consequent extinction. It may be too much to except the retailers to know the origin of fish from which products sold by them are made and pass on this information to the consumers.

New products in the market under the functional food umbrella invariably include Omega-3 acids extracted from fish sources like Anchovy and how far this pull from the market will affect the population of fish is an unknown factor. Obviously those who cannot eat fish because of many considerations will plumb for such products containing odorless nutrients derived from fish to enhance the nutrition quality of foods they consume. A revisit of the olden days, when cod liver oil in capsule form as a source of Vitamin A was available which need not be 'eaten' but swallowed without the feeling the smell associated with fish, can increase the demand for fish and the world will have to cope up with such a surge in demand in the coming years through new innovations to increase production manifold.



India is 'blessed' with a Heath Minister at the Central Level who considers him self as wise and moralist. UPA Government has pitchforked the present incumbent largely due to the coalition politics without assessing his credentials for running a ministry concerned with the life and death problems of the billion plus population. Of course he is a 'doctor' and therefore has a 'right' to be the health minister in spite of his obscure past before 'enthronement' as minister at the Center. One of his sterling achievements was his single minded mission to oust on personal grounds, an eminent surgeon as the Director of AIMS, New Delhi and thanks to the judiciary the ill-conceived attempt did not succeed. He has taken upon him self crusades to stop smoking by reputed cine artists in films presumably to prevent youngsters from inculcating this habit considered harmful. On one hand Governments derive considerable revenue in the form of duties and taxes while on the other hand platitudes are expressed regarding the ill effects of smoking. Recent ban on smoking in public places is claimed as a magnificent achievement though how effective this ban can be at the ground level remains to be seen. A bold Government must ban tobacco cultivation altogether if this habit is to be eradicated but passing on the buck is the name of the game in a democracy like the one that exists in the country. Same is true with liquor also which contributes huge sums to the exchequer in the form of various financial levies and Government is happy repeating ad naseum that consuming liquor is harmful and increasing the taxes year after year under the illusion that people will shun this habit on economic consideration. It is a reflection on the credibility of this nation that in a state like Kerala there are longer queues before liquor outlets than that seen in many temples!

The latest unsolicited proclamation from our 'learned' Minister is that India has to be saved from the epidemic of 'junk foods' and families must insulate their children from exposure to junk foods. It is similar to pushing some one into a theater showing a bad movie and then advising him to shut his eyes. lest he will be corrupted! The news paper reports about the statements from the minister do not indicate whether he fully knows what is a junk food before proclaiming these products as culprits for causing damage to the health of the nation. If the minister is so concerned he should have the experts in his ministry to study the problem if any and consider practical ways and means of counteracting the same before passing such a subjective judgment. It is a pity that food adulteration has become so rampant in the country and his ministry has nothing to contribute to stem this menace in spite of the existence of the draconian PFA Act which rarely brings about conviction for the offenders. In stead of the platitudinous advice on junk foods, the minister would have been remembered by the posterity if he shows all his fury towards the food adulterators who thrive under his very nose!

How can a wise doctor like the minister call any food 'junk' when millions in this country are suffering from hunger and starvation in spite of the 'giant' economic strides this country is supposed to have made? A food is a food by any name and it is the scant respect for the food that sustains life, makes people call them 'junk'. Why not call the habit of eating wrong foods at wrong times a junk habit rather than using this adjective for decrying the food? After inviting global giants like Pepsi, Coke, Kellogg's, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, KFC, etc to invest in the country, how can any one call them peddlers of junk foods? Was the Government not aware of what they were producing before giving them clearance to operate in India? Is there any rationale in such a behavior? If a food is rich in calories or high in sugar or fat, it cannot be called a junk food because it has also other nutrients, though in small amounts, like proteins, vitamins and minerals. An ice cream product may be high in sugar and fat but it also contains valuable milk solids rich in proteins and calcium. Potato chips may contain some what higher levels of fat but it also has the goodness of potato that is eaten every day. In stead of abusing such foods as junkies, a policy of educating the consumer to moderate their consumption to sustain health is considered more appropriate. Tax payers' money which sustains the activities of ministries like the one headed by the doctor minister would have been well spent if efforts are made in the above direction.


Saturday, November 15, 2008


So much has been written about fast foods, mostly depicting them as junk foods responsible for all the ills being experienced by the mankind during the last two decades. It is true that many meals offered by fast food joints are overloaded with calories, sugar and fat and most of the consumers do not pay attention to the nutrient load, being guided solely by the sensory pleasure derived by consuming many of these foods with minimum hassles. The alarming picture of almost 65% of American children being overweight or obese does not bode well for that country and same is true in many other countries also with high per capita income. Bliss full thinking that obese children will become normal adults with healthy arteries or not susceptible to Type II diabetes can only lead to terrible consequences and catastrophe globally. It is proved beyond doubt that obese children stand a very high chance of growing into unhealthy adults with high probability of contracting some of the dreaded diseases that afflict the society to day.

At least some people believe in the famous quote of the 1825 French gastronome, Jean Anthelme Brillat Savarin in ' The Physiology of Taste' that "the destiny of nations depends on the manner in which they are fed". This led to the formation of a non-profit, Eco-gastronomic member supported organization, called 'Slow Foods', founded in 1989 to counteract fast food and fast life, disappearance of local food tradition and people's dwindling interest in the food they eat, where it comes from, how it tastes, how it is prepared and the effect of food choices on rest of the world. The organization with 85000 active members operates in 132 countries propagating the need to exercise moderation and to adopt earth-friendly and health positive eating habits.

Though the size of the organization is not awe inspiring, its committed members have taken up a worthy cause to influence the thinking amongst the population in rich nations to abhor over indulgence just because they have the means to buy unlimited foods of their choice which results in waste and unintended diseases affecting the quality of life in the long run. They firmly believe that modern man is enslaved by speed and fast life disrupts the natural habitats, pervades privacy of homes and forces man to eat fast foods to keep up with the fast pace of the society at large. According to them Homo sapiens must rid them selves of speed before it reduces them to a species in 'danger of extinction'. Slow Food movement aims at living an unhurried life beginning at the dining table and their Eco-gastronomy philosophy connects the eating plate and the planet with mutual respect. Slow Food is good, clean and fair food, tasting good, produced in a clean way, not harming the environment, animal welfare or human health and the movement wants fair compensation to be paid to the producer for his efforts.

No wonder Slow Food movement has adopted Snail as its symbol because it eats calmly and moves slowly through out its life, a role model for human beings! How about trying to emulate the great Snail in order to live long and happy?


Friday, November 14, 2008


Modern retailing in India was projected to progressively displace the 8 million traders serving the grocery and other household needs of its one plus billion population. The role of foreign capital and technology in such a transformation was hotly being debated without any decision so far. Mean while expecting a bonanza in the form of windfall profits many Indian industry giants have jumped into the band wagon setting up modern retail stores in significant numbers in many metro regions. But the reality is that these so called organized super market out lets have not been able to capture beyond 6% of the retail business from the traditional players in spite of their massive resources and foreign tie ups. The rear guard action by the traditional retailers in protecting their turf seems to be working and there are many such stores adopting modern practices to give stiff competition to the new entrants in terms of quality, presentation and service.

In one of the most startling developments discernible to impartial observers is the tendency on the part of many global large format retailers in rich countries to shrink their size to make their outlets more customer friendly and hold on to their business. A typical large scale retail store in these countries occupies a space as big as a foot ball ground and sells more than 65000 different items, almost every thing a family needs (also does not need!) for its day to day living. The size of such stores at present is 85000 s.ft to more than 200000 s.ft depending on the location though the average size if all are considered is about 47500 s.ft. These large stores were touted as one 'stop' facilities where consumers with families can spend as much as half a day to pick and choose items of their interest, often leading to over buying, resulting in huge business volumes. But realization seems to have dawned on many large retailers that consumers do not have unlimited time at their disposal to devote for purchases in large stores involving walking aisles after aisles and queuing up at the cash counters. This has led to setting up of small stores less than 10000 s.ft in size with emphasis on prepared meals, fresh produce and 'grab & go' drinks to lure time-starved shoppers who can pick up a few items without wandering through the vast aisles as in large super markets. Major players like Safeway, Wal-Marts and others have already set the ball rolling by setting up such smaller versions with distinct brand names.'Marketside' brand of small stores is operated by Wal-Marts which expects to expand its business through such a strategy.

Fortunately in India, high cost of real estate in many metros, has restricted the size of many retailing companies and they can expect to be viable in the long run. Whether it is Food World or Spencers or Nilgiris or Reliance Fresh the store sizes are invariably around 10000 s.ft only and future entrants also may conform to this trend in order to be competitive. Though in countries like USA, Brazil, the Europe, Canada, Australia, organized modern retailing accounts for 70-90% of the market, India is going to take a long time to even reach 20% if the present trend is any indication. 70% of the market is in rural areas where no modern retailer will set foot due to enormous logistical difficulties and the sky rocketing real estate price in urban areas is a built in dampener for large investors in realizing any mega plans. The recent attempt by a Mumbai retailer to attract customers through ATM like kiosks where orders can be punched in for home delivery is a typical sign of desperation on the part of organized retailers
to survive against traditional grocers.

It is no wonder many believe in the maxim that 'small is beautiful' and millions of the so called 'mom & pop' stores are proving that small is not only beautiful but also invincible!


Thursday, November 13, 2008


The twin 'drive engines' for food in humans are hunger and gastronomic pleasure. Who does not salivate by the mere mention of a food very ear to them in anticipation of the pleasure of consuming that food and the consequent enjoyment arising out of it? A hungry person how ever can devour any food as long as it satisfies his hunger. Only during the last 6-7 decades the nutritional and health dimensions weighed in selecting right foods and increasing awareness of the connection between food and health is transforming the food sector into a complex service provider to cater to the different needs and demands from populations spanning across all ages and different compromised health conditions. While the mainstream food products, with lot of nutrition and safety information splashed on the label, cater to a vast majority of consumers whose choices are guided by the eating quality of the products, fast changes are taking place amongst the population in their concept of healthy food leading to development and marketing of a vast array of products with more and more emphasis on nutrition and health.

There is another dimension to the food discipline which is not generally noticed. This pertains to the contributions made by this sector to the English Lexicon during the last one century. Many descriptive terminologies used to define or describe food quality such as color, shape, appearance, smell, taste, texture etc have slowly crept into every day uses to describe real life situations. It is common to use some of the colors of foods to communicate effectively the color description in other cases too. Thus Lemon Yellow, Orange Red, Saffron Red, Cherry Red, Coffee Brown, Chocolate Brown, Mustard Yellow, Milky White and Wheat Brown are some of the contributions from real foods to the common vocabulary used every day for conveying the reality better during conversations. Egg Head, Corn on the feet, Egg shaped objects use the peculiar shape of the egg which other wise cannot be conveyed effectively.

Sweet Memories, Bitter Memories, Sweet Heart, Sour Note, Fruity Odor all translate the feelings into appropriate expressions. A Crisp sentence in a script, Sizzling Hot condition, Watery consistency, Popping noise, Gritty determination convey the most effective experience in many dialogs. Wafers and Chips, Sandwich, Crust, Extrusion, Swallow, Cooking, Stew, Pulverize, Blend, Soup, Boiling, Baking, Essence, Bean stalk, Butchering, Jam, Nutty and many others are not confined to food alone but find widespread use in many other areas to communicate with better effects.

It will be interesting to introspect as to the extent of contribution made by food to make the English language more forceful and communicative in our day to day life. After all the role of food is not confined to physical well being of man but also mental stimulation through better communication through some of the vocabulary associated with food.