Thursday, December 30, 2010
Tuesday, December 28, 2010
Under ideal conditions food industry should be able to manage the wastes generated within their manufacturing premises without causing nuisance to the environment. The wastes that can become logistical problem for any processing unit are of liquid, solid and gaseous types and industry continuously strives to generate economic benefits out of these wastes as far as possible. Recycling of waste water, generation of bio-gas, recovery of valuable economic products, co-generation of electricity etc are some possibilities for the food industry. Using factory wastes for landfill is a common practice in many countries in the West till a few years ago though environmental impact of such dumping forced many countries to clamp down on such activities. A zero waste industry can be a target but how this is achievable remains to be seen.
In a recent survey in the UK, it was brought out that the food and beverage industry in that country has adopted a zero waste policy which is being implemented voluntarily without any government compulsion. Of course national policies regulating land refills in many developed countries are becoming more and more stringent and probably industry may have few options but to drastically reduce the waste sent out of their premises. If the industry there is able to reduce its waste almost 90% as being claimed, such a signal achievement is praise worthy and the target of a zero waste economy seems to be within their reach. True, UK is a small country with less population and management of a few thousand tons of waste may not be such a formidable task but the determination to work for zero waste is no less admirable. Considering that many new technologies have emerged to treat wastes with minimum impact on the environment but installing such modern facilities calls for astronomical investments which cannot be afforded by most of the small enterprises with limited sparable resources.
Probably India has a good law on paper for waste disposal as many states give manufacturing licenses conditional to containment of waste within the premises of the manufacturer. But these regulations are not implemented in most of the cases and letting waste water into public streams and other similar cases of breach of the laws are very common. Considering that high investment is necessary to install waste processing facilities, many small scale industries find it extremely difficult to comply with strict control regimes and probably government will have to think of appropriate policies to help this sector. The food industrial estates which originated in early seventies in Karnataka state in India was a workable concept where each such functional but collective entity would have its own common waste processing facility for use by the member industries. How ever such far-sighted revolutionary programs could not be implemented due to many reasons.
Modern day Food Park programs, being promoted and supported by GOI has also provisions for internal waste disposal facilities though it is not known how strictly they are monitored by the local environmental authorities for compliance. Regarding the requirements of small and micro enterprises, the quantum of waste generated by them may not be high but still can pose problems for local community. Probably separately earmarked landfills, a few kilometers away from human habitation can be considered and local governments must be encouraged to set up such scientifically designed and managed facilities for which the manufacturers can be charged an affordable fee. Incidentally most municipalities have their own land refills for disposal of municipal wastes, presently eyesores in the country's landscape but if they can be reorganized, redesigned and efficiently managed, these facilities can be modified to receive food industry solid wastes also.
The adverse impact of landfills can include pollution to the environment, especially contamination of water or aquifers which can make water non-potable and dangerous. Soil contamination is another risk associated with such dumps while generation of methane, considered a green house gas, much more potent and dangerous to the environment than CO2 because of anaerobic digestion of organic matters, presents its own problems. Besides uncontrolled and unmanaged land fills can be serious health hazard because they can be breeding ground for many disease vectors like rodents, flees, birds, scavenging animals etc. Unbearable stink emanating from waste dumping areas can be nauseating and allergic to people nearby. Burning of plastic materials can generate toxic materials like dioxins, injurious to human health. Taking into consideration some of these issues, alternate options of "incentivization" of efforts by the industry for avoiding or minimizing waste generation, economic utilization of wastes and in-house disposal of wastes deserve attention.V.H.POTTY
Monday, December 20, 2010
Friday, December 17, 2010
Almost a century after its discovery and patenting a process for manufacture of Mono Sodium Glutamate popularly known as MSG, the controversy regarding its safety is still being debated though it is used extensively by the food industry as a flavor enhancer. It has an E number 621 which signifies that it is safe for human consumption, though compulsory labeling is mandated. In many countries there is no upper limit restriction for its use in any food. Oriental countries like Japan and China are the pioneers in this field with practically every food they consume containing MSG. Though it was made till some years ago using wheat gluten as the raw material by hydrolysis, emergence of gluten allergy amongst many people led to the development of alternate technology based on fermentation using starch as substrate.
Recognition of the fifth basic taste Umami as a new one besides the traditional salty, sweet, sourness and bitter tastes, owes its origin to MSG and the bound glutamate in products like tomato, cheese and cured ham are supposed to represent purest form of Umami taste. Added to this, specific receptors for Umami have been identified on human tongue confirming the existence of this fifth taste category. Ajinomoto Company is considered the pioneer in commercial manufacture and promotion of MSG globally and with an annual business turn over of more than $ 13 billion, it is a leading player in areas like food ingredients, pharmaceuticals, beverages, amino acids, specialty chemicals with operations in 122 countries. Naturally with such massive spread, clout and economic muscle Ajinomoto has been able to ride the storm caused by uncertainties regarding the safety of MSG.
More than 80% of the annual production estimated at 2.2 million tons is consumed in Asia with mainland China guzzling a whopping 1.2 million tons working out to 1.2 kg per capita consumption per year. Added at 0.1 to 0.8% to different foods, the main objective is to enhance the flavor of the final food preparation. While many consider MSG as one of the exitotoxins affecting brain functions, other critics point an accusing finger at MSG for a variety of reactions after consumption that include neurological problems, cancer, fibromyalgia, depression, obesity etc none of which has been supported by any scientific evidence. For fear of adverse effect on brain functions, MSG is not generally permitted in foods targeted at children below the age of 3 years because of their underdeveloped but growing brain. This situation is similar to the present state of HFCS which, though a natural constituent of sucrose, is being blamed by many as responsible for creating the obesity epidemic through foods rich in this sugar with not much scientific evidence to support such a theory.
It is against this context that the recent reported alliance between the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and Ajinomoto Company for taking up a joint R & D project to explore whether, this chemical used to enhance the taste of foods, has any beneficial effects on eating behavior and body weight management. According to the their agreed program trials are to be conducted by ARS' Western Human Nutrition Research Center (WHNRC) to assess in overweight women whether adding sodium glutamate to foods can facilitate a better control of appetite and caloric intake, and prevent body weight rebound following a period of moderate energy restriction and weight loss. This is based on the surmise that for many people, long term improvements in eating behavior and body weight control are difficult to maintain calling for an in-depth study on the mechanisms involved in such cases. The study team believes that MSG inclusion in regular diet can improve the quality and quantity of food consumed while at the same time providing "emotional and pleasurable" factors resulting in lesser motivation for consumption of calorie dense foods.
Though the alliance between the government agency and Ajinomoto with vast business interest in MSG may be controversial, the step may be in right direction as long as the industry partner in this study does not throw its weight around in influencing the study in any way favoring its interests. The ability of MSG in reducing sodium intake from savory foods is another interesting line of pursuit as there are some studies reporting 20% to 40% reduction in salt requirement to achieve acceptable taste when MSG was present in formulated food products at low concentrations. Probably while pursuing these studies in collaboration with Ajinomoto, USDA should keep in mind the concerns of a significant segment of the consumer population regarding the safety of MSG in general.
Wednesday, December 15, 2010
Can unripe grapes be a source of acidulant for food preparation? Obviously it was being used for creating tart taste in foods before the advent of lemon juice which has high concentration of citric acid. The active ingredient in grapes that imparts tartness is Tartaric acid which was known as far back as 800 AD though it was extracted in pure form only in 1769. Credit goes to the French chefs in recognizing the usefulness of green juice obtained from unripe fruits like grapes, crab apples, plums etc in creating special taste and flavor when added to preparations like sauces, condiments, stews, meat products etc and the juice preparation commonly refereed to as verjuice was a standard item in most French pantries.
Tartaric acid is one of the acidulants used by the food industry along with acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid and phosphoric acid. Acidity is critical for food processing as well as preservation. The famous sugar-acid-pectin gels, which created jams , jellies and preserves, are the basis of an important segment of food industry that processes fruits. Emergence of citric acid as the most important acidulant, probably because of its cost has led to decline of tartaric acid though its role is still critical in specialized preparations like baking powder, emulsifiers as bread improver etc. Besides being an organic acid like other similar ones, tartaric acid in natural form is known to have special inhibitory power against gram negative and gram positive bacteria including Salmonella paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhis and Staphylococcus aureus.
The old Verjuice of Midieval times is reported to be resurfacing during the last couple of years with many western cooks rediscovering its special effect in creating highly acceptable taste and flavor profiles in food preparations. Probably sourness was the major taste popular at that time giving Verjuice its prominence in foods. Verjuice is to day made by processing unripe fruits obtained during the thinning process in the vine yards and these half matured fruits have the necessary tartness desired by the cooks. Now it is available in bottles manufactured using modern processing technology to give longer shelf life.
Though green grapes are invariably the raw material most commonly used, in a few cases red varieties are added to create a more attractive product. Like lemon juice, verjuice adds a bright tartness to a wide range of dishes. But it has an advantage over its far more popular competitor. It's a more gentle, subtle tartness, with a faint but definite undercurrent of vegetal sweetness. Because of this, it is more adept at complementing rather than masking other flavors in dishes where it's used. Because of all this, verjuice is considered a good choice for deglazing the pan after sautéing fish or chicken as it adds just the right touch of tart, with no harshness in the background.
In India Tamarind fruit is the most commonly used acidulant and same tartaric acid contributes to the acidity of this food ingredient. Tamarind is grown in Asia, Africa and American continent, leading producers being India, Brazil, Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cuba, Puerto Rico etc. While in most cases ripe fruit after shelling is extracted for its juice for use in hundreds of culinary preparations, there are also commercial products based on the pulp. In India dried tamarind pulp, powder and juice concentrate are commercially made and find wide acceptance. Presence tannins, saponins, sesquiterpenes, alkaloids, phlobatamine and other phytochemicals makes tamarind a most potent health protecting food adjunct, especially recognized by indigenous medical practitioners in India. Its reported effect in reducing serum cholesterol and blood glucose levels is especially noteworthy. Probably food industry in India can make tamarind juice popular in western culinary preparations also through effective promotional programs. If color is not needed, green tamarind fruit can be considered for extracting juice through pectinase enzyme intervention and subsequent stabilization.
Monday, December 13, 2010
Sunday, December 12, 2010
Friday, December 10, 2010
Consumer products always need promotion and name of the game is to constantly "remind" the consumer about the advantages of the products promoted. It is rightly said that a good product can be a disastrous failure if not promoted through saturation advertisements and a bad product may become a run away success if adequate investments are made on promotion! Industry employs many techniques and strategies to get into the confidence of the consumer that include promotion through advertisements in print media, promotion through electronic media, demos and free sampling, incentive schemes, riding on other popular products etc. But all these have their own limitations, most important one being the tendency of the consumer to forget the so called virtues over a period of time which calls for repeated projection of the product.
Claims printed on the label of a packed food have most impact when consumers browse through the aisles of supermarkets and the labeling regulations are, there fore, put in place to prevent inclusion of unsubstantiated claims by unscrupulous manufacturers for short term gains. Still there are industry practices to include vague claims that can resonate with a large segment of the consumer community. The mandatory nutrition labeling gives further opportunity to the manufacturer to play around with the formulation to score over the competitor. Thus a higher fiber content, a lower sodium content or a marginal increase in protein content can attract many discerning consumers to patronize such products. Recent euphoria about antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, stannols and some functional phytochemicals has contributed to a plethora of new food products with tall claims though how they will function in human beings with different health status is still a matter of speculation.
Use of human psychology to influence the mind of the customer is not a new strategy but with more and more insight being gained about human brain major marketeers strive to gain advantage in pushing the products of their clients. Different hues of color for the product, ambiance of the environment, optimization of design of eateries, digital display of life size products, use of different aroma or smell that reminds about the products, design of packaging modes that attracts the consumer, ergonomic design of seating system to make the customer more comfortable and other features do play important roles in establishing a good first impression about a product or a brand.
The latest emerging trend is to use neuroscience to "enslave" the consumer without his knowledge. Many major industry and market innovation firms are actively pursuing this line of promotional technique called "neuromarketing ", probably out of their anxiety to edge out the competitors. The new technique is based on the premise that human brain expends only 2% of the energy on conscious activities with the rest devoted to unconscious processing, implying that many decisions made by man are at the unconscious level and this is a fertile area where consumer product industry can target their promotional activities in influencing the unconscious area of decision making. This has led to the so called mind mining techniques through EEG, MRI scans, eye tracking, skin, muscle or facial response to products and advertisements.
A major worry that confronts this type of frontier research is whether such techniques capable of probing subconscious brain patterns would be used to exercise undue influence on consumer buying decision. Is it possible that such practices could turn the consumers into glorified shopping robots indulging in a buying spree without their knowledge and consent? What are the social repercussions of such a strategy if widely used by the industry? Since it involves a combination of branding and brainwashing, the new neuromarketing technique is often referred to as "Brandwashing". Most advertising regulations at present are meant to protect children because they do not have fully developed brain with in-built defense against undue influence compared to adults who have this faculty to distinguish between truth and lies. There may be some substance in the call by consumer activists to bring in regulations that will protect the "digital privacy" of the buyers.
Though the above developments are projected as "path-breaking" by the marketing agencies, considerable ambiguity and lack of clear understanding still make this area at best a long shot with years of work ahead to bring absolute clarity. What ever little is known about neuromarketing, raises critical questions regarding the ability of mankind to resist such approach, almost bordering on "hypnotization" which works on the sub-conscious mind to elicit information which other wise would be withheld by the subject. Another disturbing question is whether the mind mining techniques will help new "Hitlers and Goebbels" to emerge from amongst the political class, if they are misused!
Monday, December 6, 2010
New developments benefiting mankind cannot come without some sacrifice and modern day living especially in urban areas is at best a compromise between what is unavoidable and what is ideal! Take the example of pollution which is a serious concern, whether it comes from air, water, light or sound and there are standards set up for compliance by all the countries. How ever how far these standards are implemented is some thing about which citizens are seriously concerned. Alternate energy generation is considered inevitable due to the fast running out of fossil fuels which have supported the industrial revolution that led to high quality of life in many countries. Amongst the many possibilities for energy generation that can ensure sustainability, wind mill technology stands out as one of the best options in places where wind velocity is adequate to run turbines and many countries in Europe, China, India, the US etc are all sparing no effort to establish the viability of wind power.
Any new technology, if to succeed, must be economically viable and socially acceptable. While wind power projects are heavily subsidized in many countries to make the energy produced compete favorably with fossil fuel energy, long term viability is still a matter of conjecture. Added to this uncertainty, what ever little has been achieved in this area seems to be in jeopardy because of social factors and many communities near wind mill locations are expressing reservation about the real impact of these projects. How ever the opposition to wind mills has not yet reached any significant level and proponents of wind power feel that many complaints are just not sustainable when a reality check is made. Some of the criticisms leveled include high noise generation during the night disturbing the sleep pattern of community nearby, ruining of the landscape, adverse effect on real estate value, harming the bird population and physiological impact on human body due to noise pollution.
Rapid heart beat, nausea, blurred vision caused by ultra low frequency sound vibrations are some of the claims made against operation of wind mills but so far not even a single piece of scientific evidence has emerged to prove the adverse health effect from the noise generated. According to experts a wind mill does not produce noise beyond 45 decibels (dB), less than what a house-hold refrigerator generates. Even normal conversation can raise the dB levels to as high as 50-60, a ticking clock can produce 30 dB noise, a sports car about 80-95 dB, car horns about 90-100 dB while those staying near air ports can experience noise levels as high as 120dB. There is a mistaken perception that the turbines in the wind mill system is responsible for the noise where as in reality the huge blades, measuring more than 100 ft, made of fiber glass or plastics, reinforced with carbon fiber produce the howling noise while rotating against the wind. If it were the turbines, possibility of noise dampening techniques could have been explored to reduce the noise levels.
Wind mills invite objections mostly during night operations when even small sound appears amplified due to the silent background that exists at that period because of minimum human activity. Solutions like shutting of the plant during nights or reducing the speed of the rotating fans are not considered practical even if one wants to satisfy the critics because that will make the operations cost prohibitive. This is where sacrifice is really called for that can benefit the country or the region through greater energy production with no green house gas emissions. Agricultural Food processing industries are known to be big energy guzzlers and if their operations are not to be curtailed, adequate power supply must be ensured. If unfortunate and uninformed popular sentiments prevent further progress in harnessing this clean technology, ultimate loser will the humanity at large.
Tuesday, November 30, 2010
Nisin is a unique short chain poly cyclic peptide containing 34 amino acids and it can boast of some special uncommon amino acids like lanthionine, methyl lanthionine, didehydro alanine and didehydro amino butyric acid. The variants of Nisin differ basically in terms of the number of amino acids contained in the polypeptide varying between 24 and 34 amino acid moieties per molecule. Their excellent solubility in water, proven safety for humans and high effectiveness at low concentrations make them ideal for preservation of many foods. More important they are digested in the GI like any other peptides and proteins leaving no traces that can cause problem. Added to this it has high resistance against acidic environment and commonly encounterd processing temperatures. It is used in a variety of foods that include milk and milk products, meat and derived products, poultry meat, fish products, canned foods, fruit juices, plant proteins, fast food preparations and health care products. Unlike conventional chemical preservatives, Nisin action is independent of pH and there for are excellently suited for extending the life of many traditional food products of India.
Monday, November 29, 2010
Thursday, November 25, 2010
Tuesday, November 23, 2010
Consumers world over prefer white flour and the food processing industry takes advantage of this weakness by providing highly refined flour through use of chemicals. The use of flour bleaching agents became a controversial issue when serious questions were raised in China regarding the safety of these chemicals when consumed over a period of time. Added to this Chinese authorities were appalled to find widespread use of Lime powder along with Benzoyl Peroxide by the flour mill industry there for obtaining snow white flour, in great demand for making many wheat based products. While Benzoyl Peroxide is a permitted bleaching agent permitted in many parts of the world, Lime powder is considered dangerous if present in flour as it can cause severe respiratory problems causing even death.
The burning question is why the flour has to be chemically bleached at all when nature itself has provided a process of whitening by exposure to atmospheric oxygen. But the industry has neither the time nor the patience to keep the flour for months together for natural aging, probably because of financial implications of long time storage. Natural flour has an yellow tint due to the presence of Xanthophyll carotenoids but if refined flour is produced in modern flour mills removing practically all the bran and the germ, the flour may look whiter. Industry still uses bleaching chemicals for further improving the appearance besides making the flour better "functionally" . Is it not unfortunate that modern flour mills produce the so called white flours by sacrificing many of the nutrients in the process, depriving the consumer of these critical life supporting nutrients?
Talking about nutrient loss, the modern day mills in contrast to traditional Atta Chakkis, remove almost all Vitamin E, 50% of unsaturated fats, 50% of Calcium, 70% of Phosphorus, 80% of Iron, 98% of Magnesium, 75% of Manganese, 50% of Potassium, 65% of Copper, 80% of Thiamine, 60% of Ribiflavin, 75% of Niacin, 50% of Pantothenic acid, 50% of Pyridoxine and practically all the dietary fiber making it literally a "dead" material. In a country like the US some of the lost nutrients are added back and offered to the consumer as "enriched" flour! According to many scientific studies such tampering with the natural composition of wheat can have grave implications on the consumer. It has been proved that those consuming calories through such refined products as bleached flour have a tendency to put on unwanted weight while the equivalent amount of calories taken through whole grain flour, nuts, fruits and vegetables do not cause such aberrations. The rapid rate at which glucose is generated in the blood from ingested refined foods causes significant metabolic changes causing over production of insulin by the pancreas leading to more and more food consumption.
Flour bleaching agents such as Benzoyl Peroxide, Calcium Peroxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, Azo Dicarbamide etc are used for obtaining white flour and these chemicals bleach the surface of flour particles giving an illusion of a uniformly white and bright product. Chlorine, Bromates and Peroxides are not permitted in EU countries because of their suspected role in causing health problems on continuous consumption. According industry sources bleached flour gives higher loaf volume and fine grain structure in bread though it can also leave a bitter after-taste. In China Benzoyl Peroxide is permitted to be used at 0.06% in flour products though there is clamor for banning this bleaching agent because of its uncertain safety.
Interestingly due to continuous consumer pressure and proven advantage of whole wheat flour, food industry in many countries are switching over to technologies that can make good quality bread from such flours, though sandwich breads are still made from bleached and enriched white flour. Indians consume wheat mainly in the form of Atta, the local name for whole wheat flour which is used to make flat bread or roti and it is recognized that modern roller flour mills can make only resultant Atta which is a blend of refined flour and finely ground bran fraction but can at best be a poor substitute for natural Atta. It is a tribute to traditional chakkis or plate mills that a good quality Atta can be made only if the wheat is ground in this simple mill and most large scale millers are using giant chakkis in battery to manufacture large quantities of the popular roti flour in the country.
Sunday, November 21, 2010
The importance of fiber in the diet for maintaining good health has been recognized world over by now. Like water, fiber cannot be strictly classified as a nutrient essential for growth but while water is essential for the very survival, fiber consumption can dramatically influence the quality of life in many ways. The modern "mantra" about consuming whole grains, fruits, vegetables and nuts is based on the indisputable fact that they are rich sources of fiber. A daily intake of 25 gm for an adult is accepted in many parts of the world as essential for normal health..
The euphoria about dietary fiber has spawned many new businesses and there are thousands of products now available in the market claiming to be rich in dietary fiber that can control cholesterol, CVD, diabetes, hypertension and gastrointestinal afflictions. By far strongest evidence has come for the role of dietary fiber in reducing significantly the serum cholesterol level. The role of fiber in maintaining a healthy gut system and generating some nutrients like essential fatty acids are also well documented. Fiber contained in oat bran, whole wheat, beans, prunes and many plant foods are recognized as most effective in obtaining many of the benefits attributed to it.
Though there is distinct difference between soluble and insoluble fibers, both are required for good health. Recent differentiation between dietary fiber and functional fiber was necessary because of the tendency on the part of the industry to use some natural and others man-made substances in product formulations exhibiting some of the benefits of naturally occurring fiber sources. Two important sources of functional fiber are Polydextrose and Inulin,used widely by the food industry for boosting fiber content in processed foods. Polydextrose is made by vacuum melting of glucose with Sorbitol and citric acid resulting in a 3-dimensional structured molecule which resists action of gut enzymes that hydrolyzes starch and other carbohydrates. It is claimed as a soluble form of dietary fiber though every one does not agree that it is a true dietary fiber.
Polydextrose is water-soluble and is used in many beverages with a few advantages. It has a neutral, fresh taste, high solubility and good stability at a wide range of pH conditions. It is also stable at reasonably high temperature conditions without getting hydrolyzed easily. A solution of Polydextrose is clear and transparent in appearance with medium viscosity. Recently reports from China indicate that Polydextrose is an excellent additive for tea to modify the flavor and mouth feel liked by consumers besides contributing to higher levels of functional fiber. The low caloric value of only 1 kC per gm is an advantage while using in formulations with calorie restriction. The relatively low Glycemic Index, less than 7, makes it ideal for diabetic food formulations. Specialty foods incorporating sugar substitutes like aspartame need bulking agent or a carrier with least calorie content and Polydextrose fits into this role admirably.
With an E number of 1200, Polydextrose is widely used in many products where features like low caloric density, increased fiber level and reduced fat content are desired. Such products include beverages, cakes, candies, dessert mixes, breakfast cereals, frozen desserts, puddings, salad dressings etc. Being a humectant, stabilizer, thickening agent and a proven pre-biotic substance, Polydextrose offers opportunities for creating new foods with more diverse sensory characteristics. A few side effects attributed to this food additive include abdominal cramps, bloating of stomach and excessive generation of gas. Consumption of Polydextrose up to 90 gm a day does not cause laxative effect while other pollyols exerts such effects at levels less than 20 gm. Though it is proved to be safe for human consumption, having shown no deleterious effect so far by any scientific studies and approved for universal use as a food additive since 1981, considering that it is a synthetic product created out of chemical reaction, its use should preferably be restricted to specialty foods targeted at over weight, diabetic and diet conscious consumers.